TY - JOUR

T1 - Exploring the Hubble Tension and Spatial Curvature from the Ages of Old Astrophysical Objects

AU - Wei, Jun Jie

AU - Melia, Fulvio

N1 - Funding Information:
We are grateful to Sunny Vagnozzi for systematically assembling the high- z OAO catalog and sharing it with us. JJW would like to thank Yan-Mei Han for her infinite patience while part of this project was carried out at home during the Nanjing lockdown caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. This work is partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant Nos. 11725314, U1831122, and 12041306), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association (2017366), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences (grant No. ZDBS-LY-7014) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Major Science and Technology Project of Qinghai Province (2019-ZJ-A10), the China Manned Space Project (CMS-CSST-2021-B11), and the Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics. We are also grateful to the anonymous referee for helpful comments.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.

PY - 2022/4/1

Y1 - 2022/4/1

N2 - We use the age measurements of 114 old astrophysical objects (OAO) in the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 8 to explore the Hubble tension. The age of the universe at any z is inversely proportional to the Hubble constant, H 0, so requiring the universe to be older than the OAO it contains at any z will lead to an upper limit on H 0. Assuming flat ΛCDM and setting a Gaussian prior on the matter density parameter ωm = 0.315 ± 0.007 informed by Planck, we obtain a 95% confidence level upper limit of H 0 < 70.6 km s-1 Mpc-1, representing a 2σ tension with the measurement using the local distance ladder. We find, however, that the inferred upper limit on H 0 depends quite sensitively on the prior for ωm, and the Hubble tension between early-time and local measurements of H 0 may be due in part to the inference of both ωm and H 0 in Planck, while the local measurement uses only H 0. The age-redshift data may also be used for cosmological model comparisons. We find that the R h = ct universe accounts well for the data, with a reasonable upper limit on H 0, while Einstein-de Sitter fails to pass the cosmic-age test. Finally, we present a model-independent estimate of the spatial curvature using the ages of 61 galaxies and the luminosity distances of 1048 Pantheon Type Ia supernovae. This analysis suggests that the geometry of the universe is marginally consistent with spatial flatness at a confidence level of 1.6σ, characterized as ωk=0.43-0.27+0.27 .

AB - We use the age measurements of 114 old astrophysical objects (OAO) in the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 8 to explore the Hubble tension. The age of the universe at any z is inversely proportional to the Hubble constant, H 0, so requiring the universe to be older than the OAO it contains at any z will lead to an upper limit on H 0. Assuming flat ΛCDM and setting a Gaussian prior on the matter density parameter ωm = 0.315 ± 0.007 informed by Planck, we obtain a 95% confidence level upper limit of H 0 < 70.6 km s-1 Mpc-1, representing a 2σ tension with the measurement using the local distance ladder. We find, however, that the inferred upper limit on H 0 depends quite sensitively on the prior for ωm, and the Hubble tension between early-time and local measurements of H 0 may be due in part to the inference of both ωm and H 0 in Planck, while the local measurement uses only H 0. The age-redshift data may also be used for cosmological model comparisons. We find that the R h = ct universe accounts well for the data, with a reasonable upper limit on H 0, while Einstein-de Sitter fails to pass the cosmic-age test. Finally, we present a model-independent estimate of the spatial curvature using the ages of 61 galaxies and the luminosity distances of 1048 Pantheon Type Ia supernovae. This analysis suggests that the geometry of the universe is marginally consistent with spatial flatness at a confidence level of 1.6σ, characterized as ωk=0.43-0.27+0.27 .

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U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/ac562c

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/ac562c

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85128784186

SN - 0004-637X

VL - 928

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

IS - 2

M1 - 165

ER -