Experience Sampling Methods: A Discussion of Critical Trends and Considerations for Scholarly Advancement

Allison S. Gabriel, Nathan P. Podsakoff, Daniel J. Beal, Brent A. Scott, Sabine Sonnentag, John P. Trougakos, Marcus M. Butts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

404 Scopus citations


In the organizational sciences, scholars are increasingly using experience sampling methods (ESM) to answer questions tied to intraindividual, dynamic phenomenon. However, employing this method to answer organizational research questions comes with a number of complex—and often difficult—decisions surrounding: (1) how the implementation of ESM can advance or elucidate prior between-person theorizing at the within-person level of analysis, (2) how scholars should effectively and efficiently assess within-person constructs, and (3) analytic concerns regarding the proper modeling of interdependent assessments and trends while controlling for potentially confounding factors. The current paper addresses these challenges via a panel of seven researchers who are familiar not only with implementing this methodology but also related theoretical and analytic challenges in this domain. The current paper provides timely, actionable insights aimed toward addressing several complex issues that scholars often face when implementing ESM in their research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)969-1006
Number of pages38
JournalOrganizational Research Methods
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • common method variance
  • experience sampling methods
  • homology
  • isomorphism
  • multilevel theory and analysis
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Decision Sciences
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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