Excitatory amino acids, TNF-α, and chemokine levels in synovial fluids of patients with active arthropathies

Terry McNearney, B. A. Baethge, S. Cao, R. Alam, J. R. Lisse, K. N. Westlund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to assess the synovial fluid (SF) neurotransmitter excitatory amino acid (EAA) levels, including glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp), in the context of SF levels of other amino acids, TNF-α and chemokines from patients with active arthropathies. The SF was collected from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), gout, or osteoarthritis (OA). The SF samples were analysed for levels of neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Regulated upon Activation Normally T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), macrophage inhibitory factor-1 alpha (MIP-1α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). SF WBC counts were also determined. Correlations between SF EAA, TNF-α and chemokines were determined by the Pearson product-moment correlation. Primary cultures derived from SF from active RA and gout patients were incubated with added L-glutamate, to assess if exposure to Glu could increase TNF-α levels. There were significant elevations in SF EAA, SF TNF-α and SF RANTES in RA patients compared to gout or OA patients. Significant correlations between SF EAA and SF RANTES, MIP-1α and IL-8 levels were seen, and SF EAA and SF TNF-α or SF WBC levels approached significance. Addition of exogenous neurotransmitter glutamate significantly increased TNF-α levels in primary cell cultures derived from RA and gout patients. The SF neurotransmitter EAA levels significantly correlated to selected SF chemokine levels, in clinically active RA, gout and OA patients, independent of disease. Added Glu resulted in significantly increased TNF-α levels in primary synovial cell cultures. These data expand the relationship of SF neurotransmitter EAA levels to SF cytokines and chemokines in patients with clinically active arthritis, and suggest that neurotransmitters Glu and Asp contribute to peripheral inflammatory processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)621-627
Number of pages7
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2004


  • Arthritis
  • Aspartate
  • Chemokines
  • Glutamate
  • TNF-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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