Examining Construct Validity of the Scale of Native Americans Giving Back

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13 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study is to use Indigenous data collection to present construct validity of an instrument designed to test the American Indian/Alaska Native Millennium Falcon Postsecondary Persistence Model (Lopez, 2018). In the following, I describe an alternative sampling technique based on an Indigenous quantitative methodology to examine how to operationalize the AI/AN Millennium Falcon Persistence Model (AMFPM) in social scientific studies. I used an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on 117 participants from the Quechan and Cocopah Nations who responded to 30 items. The EFA was set to extract 4 hypothesized factors. The interpretation of rotated scales was with variables loadings greater than.30 and loading on a single factor retained. The 4-factor solution accounted for 43% of the total variance in the items. All 4 of the scales had acceptable levels of internal reliability for empirical research (i.e., Cronbach’s alpha >.7). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed that all 4 of the original AMFPM factors (family, tribal, academic, institutional) were, in fact, captured by the Scale of Native Americans Giving Back. However, the analysis revealed that 2 of the factors merged (family and tribal support). Furthermore, the desire to give back and tribal identity emerged as separate constructs. The final scale that emerged in this study consists of 4 components of postsecondary persistence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)519-529
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Diversity in Higher Education
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021


  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Native american
  • Postsecondary education
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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