Examination of the Mechanisms of Action of Diverse Cytoprotectants in Renal Cell Death

Shayla L. Waters, Rick G. Schnellmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Glycine, strychnine, muscimol, allopregnanolone, and pregnenolone sulfate act in the late phase of renal cell injury, block Cl influx and cell lysis induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor antimycin A, and promote the recovery of respiration and ion transport following hypoxia/reoxygenation. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds has not been completely elucidated. Recently, we have shown that calpains are critical mediators of renal cell death produced by diverse toxicants and that antimycin A exposure results in calpain translocation from the cytosol to the membrane fraction that is temporally associated with Cl influx and precedes cell death/lysis. The current study examined the effects of a group of diverse cytoprotectants on calpain activity and determined if calpain inhibition plays a role in the cytoprotection produced by these compounds. The cytoprotection produced by glycine, strychnine, muscimol, allopregnanolone, and pregnenolone sulfate in rabbit renal proximal tubules exposed to antimycin A was associated with the inhibition of antimycin A-induced calpain translocation. None of the cytoprotectants had a direct effect on calpain activity. All of the cytoprotectants decreased calcium-ionophore-induced cell death. Glycine, strychnine, and muscimol also blocked antimycin A mediated extracellular Ca2+ influx. These data suggest that the cytoprotective mechanism of action of glycine, strychnine, and muscimol involves the inhibition of antimycin A mediated extracellular Ca2+ influx as well as calpain translocation and associated Cl influx. In contrast, the mechanism of action of the neurosteroids results only from the blockade of calpain translocation and associated Cl influx.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-63
Number of pages6
JournalToxicologic pathology
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1998
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • calcium
  • Calpains
  • glycine
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • necrosis
  • neurosteroids
  • renal proximal tubules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology

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