Examination of the ‘5-2-1-0’ Recommendations in Racially Diverse Young Children Exposed to Tobacco Smoke

E. Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Lili Ding, Ashley L. Merianos, Jane C. Khoury, Judith S. Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: The ‘5-2-1-0’ guidelines recommend that children: eat ≥5 servings of fruits/vegetables (‘5’), have ≤2 hours of screen-time (‘2’), have ≥1 hour of activity (‘1’), and drink 0 sugar-sweetened beverages (‘0’) daily. The pediatric emergency department (PED) treats children at risk for obesity and tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). We examined body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity, TSE, and ‘5-2-1-0’ rates in children with TSE in the PED. Design: Cross-sectional study of PED children. Setting: The PED of a children’s hospital. Sample: Children with TSE >6 months-5 years old (N = 401). Measures: Sociodemographics, ‘5-2-1-0’ behaviors, BMI, and cotinine-confirmed TSE. Analysis: Associations between ‘5-2-1-0’ and sociodemographics were examined with logistic regression. Results: Mean (SD) age = 2.4 (1.6) years; 53.1% were Black; 65.8% had low-income; and 93.4% had TSE. Of 2-5-year-olds, mean (SD) BMI percentile was 66.2 (30.1), 16.1% were overweight and 20.6% were obese. In total, 10.5% attained ‘5’, 72.6% attained ‘2’, 57.8% of 2-5-year-olds attained ‘1’, and 9.8% attained ‘0’. Compared to White children, “other” race children were more likely to meet ‘5’ (aOR(95% CI):4.67(1.41, 5.45)); 2-5-years-olds (aOR(95%CI):0.60(0.38, 0.95)) and Black children (aOR(95%CI):0.36(0.21, 0.60)) were at decreased odds to meet ‘2’ compared to younger or White children, respectively. Compared to younger children, 2-5-year-olds were at decreased odds to meet ‘0’ (aOR(95%CI):0.08(0.02, 0.26)). Conclusion: Racially diverse, low-income children with TSE had low ‘5-2-1-0’ attainment. Interventions are needed to improve lifestyle habits in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)966-972
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • beverages
  • body mass index
  • obesity
  • overweight
  • physical activity guidelines
  • screen time
  • young children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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