The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was originally developed to measure two orthogonal dimensions of affect. The present study examined the factor structure of the PANAS in a sample of 302 undergraduates. Maximum Likelihood factor analysis was used to compare two- and three-factor solutions to self-rated affect. The two-factor solution resulted in confirmation of the two factors of Positive and Negative Affect hypothesized to underlie the schedule. When, however, a three-factor solution was specified, the Positive Affect factor was retained, while the Negative Affect factor split into two lower-order factors generally consistent with the Upset and Afraid factors described by Mehrabian in 1997. These findings highlight the need for research to consider the possible influence of a third affective dimension, such as Dominance-Submissiveness on self-rated affective experience.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Sensory Systems