Evaluation of the European population intake fractions for European and Finnish anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter emissions

Marko Tainio, Mikhail Sofiev, Mika Hujo, Jouni T. Tuomisto, Miranda Loh, Matti J. Jantunen, Ari Karppinen, Leena Kangas, Niko Karvosenoja, Kaarle Kupiainen, Petri Porvari, Jaakko Kukkonen

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31 Scopus citations


The intake fraction (iF) has been defined as the integrated incremental intake of a pollutant released from a source category or region summed over all exposed individuals. In this study we evaluated the iFs in the population of Europe for emissions of anthropogenic primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from sources in Europe, with a more detailed analysis of the iF from Finnish sources. Parameters for calculating the iFs include the emission strengths, the predicted atmospheric concentrations, European population data, and the average breathing rate per person. Emissions for the whole of Europe and Finland were based on the inventories of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, respectively. The atmospheric dispersion of primary PM2.5 was computed using the regional-scale dispersion model SILAM. The iFs from Finnish sources were also computed separately for six emission source categories. The iFs corresponding to the primary PM2.5 emissions from the European countries for the whole population of Europe were generally highest for the densely populated Western European countries, second highest for the Eastern and Southern European countries, and lowest for the Northern European and Baltic countries. For the entire European population, the iF values varied from the lowest value of 0.31 per million for emissions from Cyprus, to the highest value of 4.42 per million for emissions from Belgium. These results depend on the regional distribution of the population and the prevailing long-term meteorological conditions. Regarding Finnish primary PM2.5 emissions, the iF was highest for traffic emissions (0.68 per million) and lowest for major power plant emissions (0.50 per million). The results provide new information that can be used to find the most cost-efficient emission abatement strategies and policies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3052-3059
Number of pages8
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Issue number19
StatePublished - Jun 2009


  • Dispersion model
  • Exposure
  • Fine particulate matter
  • Intake fraction
  • PM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science


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