Estimation of center of mass trajectory using wearable sensors during golf swing

Bijan Najafi, Jacqueline Lee-Eng, James S. Wrobel, Ruben Goebel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


This study suggests a wearable sensor technology to estimate center of mass (CoM) trajectory during a golf swing. Groups of 3, 4, and 18 participants were recruited, respectively, for the purpose of three validation studies. Study 1 examined the accuracy of the system to estimate a 3D body segment angle compared to a camera-based motion analyzer (Vicon®). Study 2 assessed the accuracy of three simplified CoM trajectory models. Finally, Study 3 assessed the accuracy of the proposed CoM model during multiple golf swings. A relatively high agreement was observed between wearable sensors and the reference (Vicon®) for angle measurement (r > 0.99, random error <1.2° (1.5%) for anterior-posterior; <0.9° (2%) for medial-lateral; and <3.6° (2.5%) for internal-external direction). The two-link model yielded a better agreement with the reference system compared to one-link model (r > 0.93 v. r = 0.52, respectively). On the same note, the proposed two-link model estimated CoM trajectory during golf swing with relatively good accuracy (r > 0.9, A-P random error <1cm (7.7%) and <2cm (10.4%) for ML). The proposed system appears to accurately quantify the kinematics of CoM trajectory as a surrogate of dynamic postural control during an athlete’s movement and its portability, makes it feasible to fit the competitive environment without restricting surface type.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-363
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Sports Science and Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015


  • Balance
  • Center of mass
  • Dynamic postural control
  • Golf swing
  • Simplified biomechanical model of human body
  • Wearable technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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