Errors in the measurements of T2 using multiple‐echo MRI techniques. I. Effects of radiofrequency pulse imperfections

S. Majumdar, S. C. Orphanoudakis, A. Gmitro, M. O'Donnell, J. C. Gore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

189 Scopus citations


In principle, multiple‐echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to estimate the spin‐spin relaxation time, T2, which can then be used for quantitative tissue characterization. Although multiple echoes can be used to enhance the signal‐to‐noise ratio in an image, by echo addition, rf pulse imperfections modify the echo amplitudes resulting in significant errors in the estimate of T2. Imperfect 180° pulses do not completely invert the transverse magnetization so that the magnitude of the transverse component is reduced and a longitudinal component is generated. Successive application of such imperfect pulses generates many components that interact in a complex manner. The amplitudes of successive echoes are affected whenever the transverse components refocus, whereas the longitudinal components may be rotated into the transverse plane by subsequent pulses and may often add to the image signal or give rise to an image artifact. These effects have been analyzed theoretically and have been demonstrated for a wide range of rf pulse imperfections using both simple and composite pulses, through computer simulations based on the numerical solution of the Bloch equations. The theoretical and simulation results have been substantiated through experiments performed on a mineral oil phantom using a resistive prototype MR scanner operating at 6.35 MHz. In this paper we report the effects of improper pulse amplitude or duration for nonselective rf pulses on resonance. We separately describe the other types of imperfections caused by off‐resonance effects and the use of selective pulses. © 1986 Academic Press, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-417
Number of pages21
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Errors in the measurements of T2 using multiple‐echo MRI techniques. I. Effects of radiofrequency pulse imperfections'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this