Error-correcting graphs for software watermarking

Christian Collberg, Stephen Kobourov, Edward Carter, Clark Thomborson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


In this paper, we discuss graph-theoretic approaches to software watermarking and fingerprinting. Software watermarking is used to discourage intellectual property theft and software fingerprinting is used to trace intellectual property copyright violations. We focus on two algorithms that encode information in software through the use of graph structures. We then consider the different attack models intended to disable the watermark while not affecting the correctness or performance of the program. Finally, we present several classes of graphs that can be used for watermarking and fingerprinting and analyze their properties (resiliency, data rate, performance, and stealthiness).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)156-167
Number of pages12
JournalLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
StatePublished - 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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