Environmental Fate of 14C Radiolabeled 2,4-Dinitroanisole in Soil Microcosms

Christopher I. Olivares, Camila L. Madeira, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Warren Kadoya, Leif Abrell, Jon Chorover, Jim A. Field

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


2,4-Dinitrosanisole (DNAN) is an insensitive munitions component replacing conventional explosives. While DNAN is known to biotransform in soils to aromatic amines and azo-dimers, it is seldom mineralized by indigenous soil bacteria. Incorporation of DNAN biotransformation products into soil as humus-bound material could serve as a plausible remediation strategy. The present work studied biotransformation of DNAN in soil and sludge microcosms supplemented with uniformly ring-labeled 14C-DNAN to quantify the distribution of label in soil, aqueous, and gaseous phases. Electron donor amendments, different redox conditions (anaerobic, aerobic, sequential anaerobic-aerobic), and the extracellular oxidoreductase enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were evaluated to maximize incorporation of DNAN biotransformation products into the nonextractable soil humus fraction, humin. Irreversible humin incorporation of 14C-DNAN occurred at higher rates in anaerobic conditions, with a moderate increase when pyruvate was added. Additionally, a single dose of HRP resulted in an instantaneous increased incorporation of 14C-DNAN into the humin fraction. 14C-DNAN incorporation to the humin fraction was strongly correlated (R2 = 0.93) by the soil organic carbon (OC) amount present (either intrinsic or amended). Globally, our results suggest that DNAN biotransformation products can be irreversibly bound to humin in soils as a remediation strategy, which can be enhanced by adding soil OC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13327-13334
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 21 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry


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