2,4-Dinitrosanisole (DNAN) is an insensitive munitions component replacing conventional explosives. While DNAN is known to biotransform in soils to aromatic amines and azo-dimers, it is seldom mineralized by indigenous soil bacteria. Incorporation of DNAN biotransformation products into soil as humus-bound material could serve as a plausible remediation strategy. The present work studied biotransformation of DNAN in soil and sludge microcosms supplemented with uniformly ring-labeled 14C-DNAN to quantify the distribution of label in soil, aqueous, and gaseous phases. Electron donor amendments, different redox conditions (anaerobic, aerobic, sequential anaerobic-aerobic), and the extracellular oxidoreductase enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were evaluated to maximize incorporation of DNAN biotransformation products into the nonextractable soil humus fraction, humin. Irreversible humin incorporation of 14C-DNAN occurred at higher rates in anaerobic conditions, with a moderate increase when pyruvate was added. Additionally, a single dose of HRP resulted in an instantaneous increased incorporation of 14C-DNAN into the humin fraction. 14C-DNAN incorporation to the humin fraction was strongly correlated (R2 = 0.93) by the soil organic carbon (OC) amount present (either intrinsic or amended). Globally, our results suggest that DNAN biotransformation products can be irreversibly bound to humin in soils as a remediation strategy, which can be enhanced by adding soil OC.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry