Endurance of SN 2005ip after a decade: X-rays, radio and Ha like SN 1988Z require long-lived pre-supernova mass-loss

Nathan Smith, Charles D. Kilpatrick, Jon C. Mauerhan, Jennifer E. Andrews, Raffaella Margutti, Wen Fai Fong, Melissa L. Graham, Wei Kang Zheng, Patrick L. Kelly, Alexei V. Filippenko, Ori D. Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Supernova (SN) 2005ip was a Type IIn event notable for its sustained strong interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), coronal emission lines and infrared (IR) excess, interpreted as shock interaction with the very dense and clumpy wind of an extreme red supergiant. We present a series of late-time spectra of SN 2005ip and a first radio detection of this SN, plus late-time X-rays, all of which indicate that its CSM interaction is still strong a decade post-explosion. We also present and discuss new spectra of geriatric SNe with continued CSM interaction: SN 1988Z, SN 1993J and SN 1998S. From 3 to 10 yr post-explosion, SN 2005ip's Hα luminosity and other observed characteristics were nearly identical to those of the radio-luminous SN 1988Z, and much more luminous than SNe 1993J and 1998S. At 10 yr after explosion, SN 2005ip showed a drop in Hα luminosity, followed by a quick resurgence over several months. We interpret this Ha variability as ejecta crashing into a dense shell located ≲0.05 pc from the star, which may be the same shell that caused the IR echo at earlier epochs. The extreme Hα luminosities in SN 2005ip and SN 1988Z are still dominated by the forward shock at 10 yr post-explosion, whereas SN 1993J and SN 1998S are dominated by the reverse shock at a similar age. Continuous strong CSM interaction in SNe 2005ip and 1988Z is indicative of enhanced mass-loss for ~103 yr before core collapse, longer than Ne, O or Si burning phases. Instead, the episodic mass-loss must extend back through C burning and perhaps even part of He burning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3021-3034
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 21 2017


  • Circumstellar matter
  • Stars: evolution
  • Stars: winds, outflows
  • Supernovae: general
  • Supernovae: individual: SN 2005ip

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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