Endogeneity in survey research

Jon Bingen Sande, Mrinal Ghosh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


Endogeneity is a crucial problem in survey-based empirical research on marketing strategy (MS) and inter-organizational relationships (IORs); if not addressed, it can cause researchers to arrive at flawed conclusions and to offer poor advice to practitioners. Although the field is increasingly cognizant of endogeneity-related issues, many authors fail to properly address it, particularly in survey-based research. Emphasizing the role of essential heterogeneity, this article develops an overarching framework to help improve the understanding of endogeneity problems and how to tackle them when researchers use cross-sectional survey-based data. The authors provide explanations of and advice for how MS and IOR researchers can address six “painful” and sometimes hidden decisions: 1) Do you have an endogeneity problem? 2) What technique/estimator is appropriate? 3) What instrumental variables (IVs) should be chosen? 4) How should IVs be evaluated empirically? 5) How should the results be interpreted and evaluated? and 6) What results should you report? The authors provide a practical flowchart to guide researchers in their efforts to address endogeneity-related concerns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-204
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Research in Marketing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • Cross-sectional research
  • Endogeneity
  • Essential heterogeneity
  • Inter-organizational relationships
  • Marketing strategy
  • Surveys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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