The hypothesis, posed in Part I, that excessive end wall loss of high lift low pressure turbine (LPT) airfoils is due to the influence of high stagger angles on the end wall pressure distribution and not front loading is evaluated in a linear cascade at Re=100,000 using both experimental and computational studies. A nominally high lift and high stagger angle front-loaded profile (L2F) with aspect ratio 3.5 is contoured at the end wall to reduce the stagger angle while maintaining the front loading. The contouring process effectively generates a fillet at the end wall, so the resulting airfoil is referred to as L2FEF (end wall fillet). Although referred to as a fillet, this profile contouring process is novel in that it is designed to isolate the effect of stagger angle on end wall loss. Total pressure loss measurements downstream of the blade row indicate that the use of the lower stagger angle at the end wall reduces mixed out mass averaged end wall and passage losses approximately 23% and 10%, respectively. This is in good agreement with computational results used to design the contour which predict 18% and 7% loss reductions. The end wall flow field of the L2F and L2F-EF models is measured using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the passage. These data are used to quantify changes in the end wall flow field due to the contouring. PIV results show that this loss reduction is characterized by reduced inlet boundary layer separation as well as a change in strength and location of the suction side horseshoe vortex (SHV) and passage vortex (PV). The end wall profile contouring also produces a reduction in all terms of the Reynolds stress tensor consistent with a decrease in deformation work and overall flow unsteadiness. These results confirm that the stagger angle has a significant effect on high-lift front-loaded LPT end wall loss. Low stagger profiling is successful in reducing end wall loss by limiting the development and migration of the low momentum fluid associated with the SHV and PV interaction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanical Engineering