Enabling Focus Cues in Head-Mounted Displays

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations


Developing head-mounted displays (HMDs) that offer uncompromised optical pathways to both digital and physical worlds without encumbrance and discomfort confronts many grand challenges, both from technological perspectives and human factors. Among the many challenges, minimizing visual discomfort is one of the key obstacles. One of the key contributing factors to visual discomfort is the lack of the ability to render proper focus cues in HMDs to stimulate natural eye accommodation responses, which leads to the wellknown problem of vergence-accommodation conflict. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of various technical approaches toward enabling focus cues in HMDs for both virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7831415
Pages (from-to)805-824
Number of pages20
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017


  • Accommodation and convergence
  • augmented reality
  • focus cues
  • head-mounted displays (HMDs)
  • near-to-eye displays
  • virtual reality (VR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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