Emotion and Emotion Regulation: Integrating Individual and Social Levels of Analysis

Emily A. Butler, James J. Gross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Rimé makes the important observation that the literature on adult emotion and emotion regulation has largely focused on the individual level of analysis. He argues, we believe correctly, that emotion research would benefit by addressing the fact that emotional events provoke not only individual responses, but systematic social responses as well. We present examples of our own research that are in accord with Rimé's central claims, and that demonstrate the benefits of considering the goals that are provoked and satisfied by emotions, as well as the social context of emotional responding. We conclude by advocating a dynamic systems approach that would allow an integration of individual and social levels of analysis in the study of adult emotion and emotion regulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-87
Number of pages2
JournalEmotion Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • communication
  • disclosure
  • self
  • social sharing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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