Elemental analysis of renal slices by proton-induced X-ray emission

T. Lowe, Q. Chen, Q. Fernando, R. Keith, A. J. Gandolfi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


We optimized proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for tissue analysis in a toxicity-disposition study. We used cultured rabbit renal slices as the biological system to demonstrate the use of PIXE analysis. The renal slices were exposed to HgCl2, CdCl2, K2Cr2O7, or NaAsO2 alone or in a mixture. The PIXE analysis provides information on concentrations of elements above atomic number 11, and it is the only analytical technique that can determine 20-30 elements nondestructively in a single, small sample (~ 5 mg) with detection limits of 1-5 ppm (dry weight). The renal slices are thin targets that yield X-ray emission spectra with low backgrounds and high elemental sensitivities. The nondestructive nature of PIXE and the ability to simultaneously measure uptake of multiple metals and endogenous elements are unique to this methodology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-308
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental health perspectives
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1993


  • Arsenic
  • Cadium
  • Chromium
  • Elemental analysis
  • Interactive toxicity
  • Mercury
  • Metal analysis
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)
  • X-ray emission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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