Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use and Pregnancy I: ENDS Use Behavior During Pregnancy

Elise E. DeVito, Tessa Fagle, Alicia M. Allen, Raina D. Pang, Nicole Petersen, Philip H. Smith, Andrea H. Weinberger

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: This review examines Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) use behavior during pregnancy, including the prevalence of and transitions in use during pregnancy. Recent Findings: Twenty-two papers addressed the prevalence of and/or transitions in ENDS use during pregnancy. Findings show a complex landscape of ENDS use. A minority (0.4–7.0%) of pregnant persons use ENDS; most commonly this occurs in the form of dual use (ENDS and combustible cigarettes (CC); 75%). Many pregnant persons report using ENDS because they perceive them to be a lower-risk alternative and/or potential cessation aide for CC smoking. However, while a subset of those who use ENDS do quit all tobacco product use during pregnancy, only a small proportion switch from exclusive CC smoking to exclusive ENDS use. Summary: ENDS are a somewhat new addition to the tobacco product landscape. The perception of ENDS as a lower-risk alternative may contribute to ENDS use in pregnancy. There is insufficient evidence to support the notion that ENDS facilitates the cessation of tobacco product use during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)347-365
Number of pages19
JournalCurrent Addiction Reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • ENDS
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco regulatory science
  • Vaping
  • e-Cigarette

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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