Background and Aims: Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) exhibit disproportionately high smoking prevalence and experience profound tobacco-related disparities. US nationally representative surveys from 2012 to 2015 found relatively high usage of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; e.g. e-cigarettes) among adults with MHC. However, research has not examined these associations specifically among never smokers. Aims were to examine associations among MHC diagnosis, serious psychological distress (SPD) and ENDS use and to test whether associations varied by cigarette smoking status. Design: Cross-sectional US nationally representative survey. Setting: United States, 2017. Participants: A total of 5762 adults (52.0% female; 64.8% non-Hispanic white, 11.4% non-Hispanic black, 15.9% Hispanic, 7.9% non-Hispanic other). Measurements: Outcomes were lifetime, current and current daily ENDS use. Predictors were lifetime MHC, past-month SPD and cigarette smoking status, and covariates were gender, age, race/ethnicity, education and annual household income. Findings: lifetime MHC and past-month SPD were each associated with higher likelihood of having ever used ENDS (P ≤ 0.001), currently using ENDS (P ≤ 0.001) and currently using ENDS daily (P < 0.05). There were interactions between MHC and smoking status in predicting ENDS use, such that MHC status predicted higher lifetime and current ENDS use specifically among never and current smokers. Never smokers with MHC had 2.62 higher odds [95% confidence interval, (CI) = 1.54, 4.45] of current ENDS use than those without MHC. Among never smokers, those with MHC indicated higher expectations that ENDS would improve relaxation and concentration (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In 2017, US adults with versus without mental health conditions (MHC) were more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). In particular, both never and current smokers with MHC reported disproportionately high rates of current ENDS use.
- e-cigarette outcome expectations
- electronic nicotine delivery systems
- mental health conditions
- psychological distress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Psychiatry and Mental health