Electrochemical Response of Alkaline Batteries Subject to Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading

Megan Flannagin, Baxter Barnes, William O’Donoghue, Jason Mayeur, Kavan Hazeli, George J. Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Electrochemical changes were successfully monitored through the coupling of external loading, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis. The development of the testing methods allows for detailed observation of changes due to mechanical loading and distinguishes responses between different cell geometries. Comparison of the force vs displacement, voltage vs displacement, and distribution of relaxation times plots to the different cell geometries display failure modes specific to geometry as well as the impact of different loading profiles. Numerical modeling confirmed the movement within individual cells and predicted locations with the most deformation based on the external loading condition applied. The results gathered from combining mechanical loading, electrochemical response, and numerical modeling, yield a viable approach to establishing an improved understanding of the effects of mechanical loading on the electrochemical response of multiple battery geometries and the methods herein may be extensible to additional battery chemistries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number010521
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Alkaline Batteries
  • Distributed Loading
  • Distribution of Relaxation Times
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
  • Mechanical Loading
  • Spherical Indentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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