Electrically Small, Low-Profile, Huygens Circularly Polarized Antenna

Wei Lin, Richard W. Ziolkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


The design, simulation studies, and experimental verification of an electrically small, low-profile, broadside-radiating Huygens circularly polarized (HCP) antenna are reported. To realize its unique circular polarization cardioid-shaped radiation characteristics in a compact structure, two pairs of the metamaterial-inspired near-field resonant parasitic elements, the Egyptian axe dipole (EAD) and the capacitively loaded loop (CLL), are integrated into a crossed-dipole configuration. The EAD (CLL) elements act as the orthogonal electric dipole (magnetic dipole) radiators. Balanced broadside-radiated electric and magnetic field amplitudes with the requisite 90° phase difference between them are realized by exciting these two pairs of electric and magnetic dipoles with a specially designed, unbalanced crossed-dipole structure. The electrically small (ka = 0.73) design operates at 1575 MHz. It is low profile 0.04λ0, and its entire volume is only 0.0018λ03. A prototype of this optimized HCP antenna system was fabricated, assembled, and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with their simulated values. They demonstrate that the prototype HCP antenna resonates at 1584 MHz with a 0.6 dB axial ratio, and produces the predicted Huygens cardioid-shaped radiation patterns. The measured peak realized LHCP gain was 2.7 dBic, and the associated front-to-back ratio was 17.7 dB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8219418
Pages (from-to)636-643
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • Circular polarization (CP)
  • Huygens source
  • electrically small antennas (ESAs)
  • global positioning system (GPS)
  • near-field resonant parasitic (NFRP) elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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