EHT-HOPS Pipeline for Millimeter VLBI Data Reduction

Lindy Blackburn, Chi Kwan Chan, Geoffrey B. Crew, Vincent L. Fish, Sara Issaoun, Michael D. Johnson, Maciek Wielgus, Kazunori Akiyama, John Barrett, Katherine L. Bouman, Roger Cappallo, Andrew A. Chael, Michael Janssen, Colin J. Lonsdale, Sheperd S. Doeleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


We present the design and implementation of an automated data calibration and reduction pipeline for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations taken at millimeter wavelengths. These short radio wavelengths provide the best imaging resolution available from ground-based VLBI networks such as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) but require specialized processing owing to the strong effects from atmospheric opacity and turbulence, as well as the heterogeneous nature of existing global arrays. The pipeline builds on a calibration suite (HOPS) originally designed for precision geodetic VLBI. To support the reduction of data for astronomical observations, we have developed an additional framework for global phase and amplitude calibration that provides output in a standard data format for astronomical imaging and analysis. The pipeline was successfully used toward the reduction of 1.3 mm observations from the EHT 2017 campaign, leading to the first image of a black hole "shadow" at the center of the radio galaxy M87. In this work, we analyze observations taken at 3.5 mm (86 GHz) by the GMVA, joined by the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in 2017 April, and demonstrate the benefits from the specialized processing of high-frequency VLBI data with respect to classical analysis techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number23
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • techniques: high angular resolution
  • techniques: interferometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'EHT-HOPS Pipeline for Millimeter VLBI Data Reduction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this