Efficacy of perfluorobutane as a phase-change contrast agent for low-energyultrasonic imaging

Paul S. Sheeran, Vincent P. Wong, Ryan J. McFarland, William D. Ross, Steven G. Feingold, Terry O. Matsunaga, Paul A. Dayton

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


Most gas-filled ultrasound contrast agents are produced range of severalmicrons in diameter, which limits them to flow within intravascular space. Onemechanism proposed to produce extravascular imaging agents is acoustic dropletvaporization. Liquid perfluorocarbon droplets can be manufactured in thesub-micron range and can then passively diffuse through leaky tumor vasculature.It is hypothesized that once extravasated, these droplets could be converted tomicrobubbles in the micron range through additional energy input in the form ofultrasound, resulting in enhanced imaging contrast. Recent studies show currentformulations of phase-change contrast agents in the sub-micron range mayrequire substantial acoustic energy to vaporize, which increases the chance ofbioeffects. Thus, phase-change contrast agents with reduced acoustic activationenergies would have significant advantages. In this study, the generation andactivation of novel phase-change contrast agents formulated with perfluorobutaneis demonstrated. Perfluorobutane normally a gas at room temperature can beincorporated into metastable liquid sub-micron droplets with lipid encapsulationmethods. The resulting droplets are shown to be acoustically vaporizable withsubstantially less energy than other compounds proposed for phase-changecontrast agents such as perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2010 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2010
Number of pages4
StatePublished - 2010
Event2010 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2010 - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Oct 11 2010Oct 14 2010

Publication series

NameProceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium
ISSN (Print)1051-0117


Other2010 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2010
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • contrast agent
  • perfluorocarbon
  • phase-change
  • tumor imaging
  • ultrasound
  • vaporization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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