The breast musculature of genetically dystrophic Line 413 and genetically related normal Line 412 chickens were treated in three separate trials with high-frequency electrical stimulation (ES). Beginning on days 7 or 14 ex ovo, each bird received three ES treatments per week. Each stimulation cycle repeated five times per day consisted of 15 s "on" followed by 50 s "off." In the third trial only, the birds were additionally treated beginning day 3 ex ovo with either leucine (100 mg/kg) or the proteinase inhibitor Ep475 (10 mg/kg). ES significantly delayed the onset of righting disability in the dystrophic chickens. However, this improvement was temporary and could be masked by single treatments of either leucine or Ep475. Plasma creatine kinase activities were increased generally in both the stimulated normal and dystrophic birds. In two trials ES increased the relative muscle mass, and in one trial increased protein. ES had little effect on normal muscle mass or protein. However, ES treatment together with either leucine or Ep475 appeared to improve both normal and dystrophic muscle mass and protein. Furthermore ES decreased dystrophic muscle calcium but not acetylcholinesterase activity. On the other hand, ES had no effect on the total normal muscle calcium but increased normal acetylcholinesterase values. In both normal and dystrophic muscle samples, ES treatment in combination with leucine appeared to increase the mean muscle fiber diameters and number of myonuclei, and in the case of the dystrophic muscle, appeared to decrease the relative proportion of vacuolated, degenerating, and intensely oxidative histochemical fibers. In general, stimulation (especially in combination with leucine) appears to alter in varying degrees the phenotypic expression of the muscle disease exhibited in the dystrophic chicken.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Neuroscience