Phase perturbations in the object plane of a partially coherent imaging system are found to produce artifacts in the aerial image. It is demonstrated that phase perturbations of as little as λ/30 rms can produce visible deformation in the final image for modest coherence factors, such as σc = 0.4. A combination of simulation and experiment is used to demonstrate the effects. Application to line-edge roughness in lithography is described.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics