Effects of ingested vertebrate-derived factors on insect immune responses

Nazzy Pakpour, Michael A. Riehle, Shirley Luckhart

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


During the process of blood feeding insect vectors are exposed to an array of vertebrate-derived blood factors ranging from byproducts of blood meal digestion to naturally occurring products in the blood including growth hormones, cytokines and factors derived from blood-borne pathogens themselves. In this review, we examine the ability of these ingested vertebrate blood factors to alter the innate pathogen defenses of insect vectors. The ability of these factors to modify the immune responses of insect vectors offers new intriguing targets for blocking or reducing transmission of human disease-causing pathogens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Insect Science
StatePublished - Sep 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Insect Science


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