Effect on null spaces of list-mode imaging systems due to increasing the size of attribute space

Eric W Clarkson, Meredith Kupinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An upper bound is derived for a figure of merit that quantifies the error in reconstructed pixel or voxel values induced by the presence of null functions for any list-mode system. It is shown that this upper bound decreases as the region in attribute space occupied by the allowable attribute vectors expands. This upper bound allows quantification of the reduction in this error when this type of expansion is implemented. Of course, reconstruction error is also caused by system noise in the data, which has to be treated statistically, but we will not be addressing that problem here. This method is not restricted to pixelized or voxelized reconstructions and can in fact be applied to any region of interest. The upper bound for pixelized reconstructions is demonstrated on a list-mode 2D Radon transform example. The expansion in the attribute space is implemented by doubling the number of views. The results show how the pixel size and number of views both affect the upper bound on reconstruction error from null functions. This reconstruction error can be averaged over all pixels to give a single number or can be plotted as a function on the pixel grid. Both approaches are demonstrated for the example system. In conclusion, this method can be applied to any list-mode system for which the system operator is known and could be used in the design of the systems and reconstruction algorithms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-394
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition


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