Effect of wearables on sleep in healthy individuals: A randomized crossover trial and validation study

Sarah Berryhill, Christopher J. Morton, Adam Dean, Adam Berryhill, Natalie Provencio-Dean, Salma I. Patel, Lauren Estep, Daniel Combs, Saif Mashaqi, Lynn B. Gerald, Jerry A. Krishnan, Sairam Parthasarathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a wearable sleep-tracker improves perceived sleep quality in healthy participants and to test whether wearables reliably measure sleep quantity and quality compared with polysomnography. Methods: This study included a single-center randomized crossover trial of community-based participants without medical conditions or sleep disorders. A wearable device (WHOOP, Inc.) was used that provided feedback regarding sleep information to the participant for 1 week and maintained sleep logs versus 1 week of maintained sleep logs alone. Self-reported daily sleep behaviors were documented in sleep logs. Polysomnography was performed on 1 night when wearing the wearable. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System sleep disturbance sleep scale was measured at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of study participation. Results: In 32 participants (21 women; 23.8 ± 5 years), wearables improved nighttime sleep quality (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System sleep disturbance: B = −1.69; 95% confidence interval, −3.11 to −0.27; P =.021) after adjusting for age, sex, baseline, and order effect. There was a small increase in self-reported daytime naps when wearing the device (B = 3.2; SE, 1.4; P =.023), but total daily sleep remained unchanged (P =.43). The wearable had low bias (13.8 minutes) and precision (17.8 minutes) errors for measuring sleep duration and measured dream sleep and slow wave sleep accurately (intraclass coefficient, 0.74 ± 0.28 and 0.85 ± 0.15, respectively). Bias and precision error for heart rate (bias, −0.17%; precision, 1.5%) and respiratory rate (bias, 1.8%; precision, 6.7%) were very low compared with that measured by electrocardiogram and inductance plethysmography during polysomnography. Conclusions: In healthy people, wearables can improve sleep quality and accurately measure sleep and cardiorespiratory variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)775-783
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 15 2020


  • Sleep
  • Sleep loss
  • Sleep quality
  • Sleep tracker
  • Wearable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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