Economic Issues in Heart Failure in the United States

HFSA Scientific Statement Committee Members Chair

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


The cost of heart failure care is high owing to the cost of hospitalization and chronic treatments. Heart failure treatments vary in their benefit and cost. The cost effectiveness of therapies can be determined by comparing the cost of treatment required to obtain a certain benefit, often defined as an increase in 1 year of life. This review was sponsored by the Heart Failure Society of America and describes the growing economic burden of heart failure for patients and the health care system in the United States. It also provides a summary of the cost effectiveness of drugs, devices, diagnostic tests, hospital care, and transitions of care for patients with heart failure. Many medications that are no longer under patent are inexpensive and highly cost-effective. These include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. In contrast, more recently developed medications and devices, vary in cost effectiveness, and often have high out-of-pocket costs for patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-466
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of cardiac failure
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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