Early Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Following Injury Is Associated with a 30-day Survival Benefit: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Shimena R. Li, Francis Guyette, Joshua Brown, Mazen Zenati, Katherine M. Reitz, Brian Eastridge, Raminder Nirula, Gary A. Vercruysse, Terence O'Keeffe, Bellal Joseph, Matthew D. Neal, Brian S. Zuckerbraun, Jason L. Sperry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective:We sought to characterize the timing of administration of prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) and associated outcome benefits.Background:TXA has been shown to be safe in the prehospital setting post-injury.Methods:We performed a secondary analysis of a recent prehospital randomized TXA clinical trial in injured patients. Those who received prehospital TXA within 1 hour (EARLY) from time of injury were compared to those who received prehospital TXA beyond 1 hour (DELAYED). We included patients with a shock index of >0.9. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier and Cox Hazard regression were utilized to characterize mortality relationships.Results:EARLY and DELAYED patients had similar demographics, injury characteristics, and shock severity but DELAYED patients had greater prehospital resuscitation requirements and longer prehospital times. Stratified Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significant separation for EARLY patients (N = 238, log-rank chi-square test, 4.99; P = 0.03) with no separation for DELAYED patients (N = 238, log-rank chi-square test, 0.04; P = 0.83). Stratified Cox Hazard regression verified, after controlling for confounders, that EARLY TXA was associated with a 65% lower independent hazard for 30-day mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.65, P = 0.001] with no independent survival benefit found in DELAYED patients (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.63-1.60, P = 0.999). EARLY TXA patients had lower incidence of multiple organ failure and 6-hour and 24-hour transfusion requirements compared to placebo.Conclusions:Administration of prehospital TXA within 1 hour from injury in patients at risk of hemorrhage is associated with 30-day survival benefit, lower incidence of multiple organ failure, and lower transfusion requirements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of surgery
Volume274
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021

Keywords

  • hemorrhagic shock
  • prehospital
  • tranexamic acid
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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