Dyspepsia: initial evaluation and treatment.

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OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the initial evaluation and management of dyspepsia. DATA SOURCES: Articles identified through a MEDLINE search for human studies published in English between 1966 and June 2001, using the primary search term dyspepsia and the secondary search terms diagnosis, complications, and treatment; textbooks with information on the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders; and bibliographies of retrieved publications and textbooks. STUDY SELECTION: Articles that focused on dyspepsia as well as factors suggestive of more complicated GI disorders that would require pharmacists to refer patients to a physician. DATA EXTRACTION: Performed by the author manually. DATA SYNTHESIS: Functional dyspepsia (i.e., upset stomach or indigestion with no identifiable lesion) is a common complaint that may be relieved by medications, including antacids, histamine2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, and promotility agents. However, therapy should not mask important warning signs and symptoms of more complicated diseases, as that could delay both diagnosis and more definitive treatment. Peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease each account for about 20% of patients presenting with dyspepsia. Gastric cancer is an important disease to consider in the differential diagnosis of dyspepsia in patients older than 45 years, especially elderly patients (65 years and older). CONCLUSION: Nonprescription medications can relieve functional dyspepsia, but pharmacists must be aware of common features of diseases that require patient referral to a physician for further evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)460-468
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Washington,D.C. : 1996)
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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