DMD Gene and Dystrophinopathy Phenotypes Associated With Mutations: A Systematic Review for Clinicians

Jennifer G. Andrews, Maureen Kelly Galindo, Shiny Thomas, Katherine D. Mathews, Nedra Whitehead

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The diagnosis of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) is made by genetic testing in approximately 95% of cases. Although specific mutations can be associated with skeletal muscle phenotype, pulmonary and cardiac comorbidities (leading causes of death in Duchenne) have not been associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy mutation type or location and vary within families. Therefore, identifying predictors for phenotype severity beyond frameshift prediction is important clinically. We performed a systematic review assessing research related to genotype-phenotype correlations in DBMD. While there are severity differences across the spectrum and within mild and severe forms of DBMD few protective or exacerbating mutations within the dystrophin gene were reported. Except for intellectual disability, clinical test results reporting genotypic information are insufficient for clinical prediction of severity and comorbidities and the predictive validity is too low to be useful when advising families. Including expanded information coupled with proposed severity predictions in clinical genetic reports for DBMD is critical for improving anticipatory guidance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-187
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Duchenne and Becker
  • genotype
  • phenotype
  • review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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