Disorders of cranial nerves IX and X

Audrey B. Erman, Alexandra E. Kejner, Norman D. Hogikyan, Eva L. Feldman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing. Multiple etiologies can produce symptoms. In this review, the authors broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-92
Number of pages8
JournalSeminars in Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2009


  • Cranial nerve disorders
  • Dysphagia
  • Dysphonia
  • Glossopharyngeal
  • Vagus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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