Discovery of a Protocluster Core Associated with an Enormous Lya Nebula at z = 2.3

Qiong Li, Ran Wang, Helmut Dannerbauer, Zheng Cai, Bjorn Emonts, Jason Xavier Prochaska, Fabrizio Arrigoni Battaia, Roberto Neri, Chengpeng Zhang, Xiaohui Fan, Shuowen Jin, Ilsang Yoon, Shane Bechtel

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8 Scopus citations


The MAMMOTH-1 nebula at z = 2.317 is an enormous Lya nebula (ELAN) extending to a ~440 kpc scale at the center of the extreme galaxy overdensity BOSS 1441. In this paper, we present observations of the CO(3 - 2) and 250 GHz dust-continuum emission from MAMMOTH-1 using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array. Our observations show that CO(3 - 2) emission in this ELAN has not extended widespread emission into the circum- and inter-galactic media. We also find a remarkable concentration of six massive galaxies in CO(3 - 2) emission in the central ~100 kpc region of the ELAN. Their velocity dispersions suggest a total halo mass of M 200c ~ 1013.1 M o?, marking a possible protocluster core associated with the ELAN. The peak position of the CO(3 - 2) line emission from the obscured AGN is consistent with the location of the intensity peak of MAMMOTH-1 in the rest-frame UV band. Its luminosity line ratio between the CO(3 - 2) and CO(1 - 0)r 3,1 is 0.61 0.17. The other five galaxies have CO(3 - 2) luminosities in the range of (2.1-7.1) 109 K km s-1 pc2, with the star-formation rates derived from the 250 GHz continuum of (<36)-224 M o? yr-1. Follow-up spectroscopic observations will further confirm more member galaxies and improve the accuracy of the halo mass estimation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number236
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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