Device Thrombogenicity Emulator (DTE) - Design optimization methodology for cardiovascular devices: A study in two bileaflet MHV designs

Michalis Xenos, Gaurav Girdhar, Yared Alemu, Jolyon Jesty, Marvin Slepian, Shmuel Einav, Danny Bluestein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Patients who receive prosthetic heart valve (PHV) implants require mandatory anticoagulation medication after implantation due to the thrombogenic potential of the valve. Optimization of PHV designs may facilitate reduction of flow-induced thrombogenicity and reduce or eliminate the need for post-implant anticoagulants. We present a methodology entitled Device Thrombogenicty Emulator (DTE) for optimizing the thrombo-resistance performance of PHV by combining numerical and experimental approaches. Two bileaflet mechanical heart valves (MHV) designs, St. Jude Medical (SJM) and ATS, were investigated by studying the effect of distinct flow phases on platelet activation. Transient turbulent and direct numerical simulations (DNS) were conducted, and stress loading histories experienced by the platelets were calculated along flow trajectories. The numerical simulations indicated distinct design dependent differences between the two valves. The stress loading waveforms extracted from the numerical simulations were programmed into a hemodynamic shearing device (HSD), emulating the flow conditions past the valves in distinct 'hot-spot' flow regions that are implicated in MHV thrombogenicity. The resultant platelet activity was measured with a modified prothrombinase assay, and was found to be significantly higher in the SJM valve, mostly during the regurgitation phase. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with the calculated platelet activation potential. This establishes the utility of the DTE methodology for serving as a test bed for evaluating design modifications for achieving better thrombogenic performance for such devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2400-2409
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Aug 2010


  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Mechanical circulation support (MCS)
  • Mechanical heart valves (MHV)
  • Platelet activation
  • Platelet assays
  • Prosthetic heart valves (PHV)
  • Thrombogenic performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Rehabilitation
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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