Development of aquaculture protocols and gonadal differentiation of green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

Chad N. Teal, Daniel J. Schill, Susan B. Fogelson, Colby M. Roberts, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Scott A. Bonar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We provide detailed rearing methods and describe green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) gonadal development and histological differentiation for both sexes. Developing in-depth aquaculture protocols and describing the gonadal differentiation of green sunfish could facilitate strategies to control nuisance populations, enhance stocking programs, and provide information for this species' use in bioassay trials or toxicology studies. Our methods resulted in consistent year-round production of green sunfish and allowed us to identify the timing of their gonadal differentiation through histological assessment. Our spawning methods provided year-round volitional spawns from green sunfish broodstock. Our rearing methods involved weaning larval green sunfish off live nauplii and onto only artificial diets by 37 days post-hatch (dph). Most of the offspring generation reached sexual maturity by 213 dph. Green sunfish are gonochoristic, with testes and ovaries differentiating directly from undifferentiated gonads. Ovaries begin to differentiate by 39 dph and testes begin to differentiate by 69 dph. This information can provide biologists consistent means to produce this Centrachid and understand their gonadal development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number737515
StatePublished - Jan 30 2022


  • Aquaculture
  • Gonadal development
  • Larval rearing
  • Lepomis cyanellus
  • Sex differentiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science


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