Development of a position-velocity-timemodulated two-dimensional ion beam figuring system for synchrotron x-ray mirror fabrication

Tianyi Wang, Lei Huang, Yi Zhu, Matthew Vescovi, Denis Khune, Hyukmo Kang, Heejoo Choi, Dae Wook Kim, Kashmira Tayabaly, Nathalie Bouet, Mourad Idir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


With the rapid evolution of synchrotron x-ray sources, the demand for high-quality precision x-ray mirrors has greatly increased. Single nanometer shape accuracy is required to keep imaging capabilities at the diffraction limit. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has been used frequently for ultra-precision finishing of mirrors, but achieving the ultimate accuracy depends on three important points: Careful alignment, accurate dwell time calculation and implementation, and accurate optical metrology. The Optical Metrology Group at National Synchrotron Light Source II has designed and built a position-velocity-time-modulated two-dimensional IBF system (PVT-IBF) with three novel characteristics: (1) a beam footprint on the mirror was used as a reference to align the coordinate systems between the metrology and the IBF hardware; (2) the robust iterative Fourier transform-based dwell time algorithm proposed by our group was applied to obtain an accuratedwell time map; and (3) thedwell time was then transformed to velocities and implemented with the PVT motion scheme. In this study, the technical aspects of the PVT-IBF systems are described in detail, followed by an experimental demonstration of the figuring results. In our first experiment, the 2DRMSin a 50mm×5mmclear aperture was reduced from 3.4 to 1.1nmafter one IBF run. In our second experiment, due to a 5mmpinhole installed in front of the source, the 2D RMS in a 50mm×5mm clear aperture was reduced from39.1 to 1.9nmafter three IBF runs, demonstrating that ourPVT-IBF solution is an effective and deterministic figuring process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3306-3314
Number of pages9
JournalApplied optics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Apr 10 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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