Development of a goal elicitation measure to support choice about urinary diversion by patients with bladder cancer

Michael C. Leo, Scott M. Gilbert, Christopher S. Wendel, Robert S. Krouse, Marcia Grant, Kim N. Danforth, Marilyn L. Kwan, Teresa N. Harrison, Joanna E. Bulkley, Carmit K. Mcmullen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose:Patient centered care aims to align treatment with patient goals, especially when treatment options have equivalent clinical outcomes. For surgeries with lasting impacts that alignment is critical. To our knowledge no psychometrically tested preference elicitation measures exist to support patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy, who can often choose between ileal conduit and neobladder diversions. In this study we created a scale to measure how patient goals align with each type of urinary diversion and the associated surgical outcomes.Materials and Methods:We performed formative research through focus groups and clinician outreach to adapt a goal dissonance measure. We mailed a survey to adult Kaiser Permanente® members who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between January 2013 and June 2015. Eligible patients were identified through electronic health records and chart review. Surveys were mailed 5 to 7 months postoperatively. We administered our 10-item decision dissonance scale along with other decision making measures. We explored goal alignment as well as dissonance. Psychometric analysis included factor analysis, evaluation of scale scores between surgery groups and evaluation with other decision making scores.Results:We identified 10 goals associated with ileal conduit or neobladder diversion. Using survey data on 215 patients our scale differentiated patient goals associated with each diversion choice. On average patients with a neobladder strongly valued neobladder aligned goals such as maintaining body integrity and volitional voiding through the urethra. Patients with an ileal conduit had neutral values on average across all goals.Conclusions:Our measure lays the foundation for a simple value elicitation approach which could facilitate shared decision making about urinary diversion choice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-89
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019


  • bladder neoplasms
  • decision making
  • patient centered care
  • patient reported outcome measures
  • urinary diversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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