Development and Validation of an 18-Item Medium Form of the Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices

Jon A. Sefcek, Geoffrey F. Miller, Aurelio José Figueredo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) is a widely used measure of general intelligence (g), both across settings and cultures. Due to its lengthy 40-min administration time, several researchers have developed short-form scales, yet these forms typically yield a significantly lower reliability. This article describes the creation of an 18-item short form (APM-18) and its validation in three samples of Southwestern U.S. university students (total N = 633). The APM-18 shows similar psychometric properties to both the previously published 36-item long form and 12-item short form, but retains a reliability estimate closer to the original APM. This, plus the shorter administration time (25 min) relative to the complete APM (40-60 min), makes it useful for time-constrained or mass-testing situations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSAGE Open
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices
  • culture-fair tests
  • general intelligence
  • personality
  • timed tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)
  • Social Sciences(all)


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