Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are not only functional devices but also represent an important tool for measuring the charge-transport properties of organic semiconductors (OSs). Thus, efforts to understand the performance and characteristics of OFET devices are not only useful in helping achieve higher device efficiencies but also critical to ensuring accuracy in the evaluations of OS charge mobilities. These studies rely on OFET device models, which connect the measured current characteristics to the properties of the OSs. Developing such OFET models requires good knowledge of the charge-transport processes in OSs. In device active layers, the OS thin films are either amorphous (e.g. in organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells) or crystalline (e.g. those optimized for charge transport in OFETs). When the electronic couplings between adjacent OS molecules or polymer chain segments are weak, the charge-transport mechanism is dominated by hopping processes, which is the context in which we frame the discussion in this Review. Factors such as disorder, mobility anisotropy, traps, grain boundaries or film morphology all impact charge transport. To take these features fully into account in an OFET device model requires considering a nano-scale, molecular-level resolution. Here, we discuss the recent development of such molecular-resolution OFET models based on a kinetic Monte Carlo approach relevant to the hopping regime. We also briefly describe the applicability of these models to high-mobility OFETs, where we underline the need to extend them to incorporate aspects related to charge delocalization.
- charge transport
- gradual channel approximation
- kinetic Monte Carlo simulations
- mobility measurements
- organic semiconductors
ASJC Scopus subject areas