Determining optimum tilt angles and orientations of photovoltaic panels in Sanliurfa, Turkey

Murat Kacira, Mehmet Simsek, Yunus Babur, Sedat Demirkol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

310 Scopus citations


The performance of a photovoltaic (PV) panel is affected by its orientation and its tilt angle with the horizontal plane. This is because both of these parameters change the amount of solar energy received by the surface of the PV panel. A mathematical model was used to estimate the total solar radiation on the tilted PV surface, and to determine optimum tilt angles for a PV panel installed in Sanliurfa, Turkey. The optimum tilt angles were determined by searching for the values of angles for which the total radiation on the PV surface was maximum for the period studied. The study also investigated the effect of two-axis solar tracking on energy gain compared to a fixed PV panel. This study determined that the monthly optimum tilt angle for a PV panel changes throughout the year with its minimum value as 13° in June and maximum value as 61° in December. The results showed that the gains in the amount of solar radiation throughout the year received by the PV panel mounted at monthly optimum tilt angles with respect to seasonal optimum angles and tilt angel equal to latitude were 1.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Furthermore, daily average of 29.3% gain in total solar radiation results in an daily average of 34.6% gain in generated power with two-axis solar tracking compared to a south facing PV panel fixed at 14° tilt angle on a particular day in July in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1265-1275
Number of pages11
JournalRenewable Energy
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jul 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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