Detecting enzyme activities with exogenous MRI contrast agents

Dina V. Hingorani, Byunghee Yoo, Adam S. Bernstein, Mark D. Pagel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


This review focuses on exogenous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that are responsive to enzyme activity. Enzymes can catalyze a change in water access, rotational tumbling time, the proximity of a 19F- labeled ligand, the aggregation state, the proton chemical-exchange rate between the agent and water, or the chemical shift of 19F, 31P, 13C or a labile 1H of an agent, all of which can be used to detect enzyme activity. The variety of agents attests to the creativity in developing enzyme-responsive MRI contrast agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9840-9850
Number of pages11
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number32
StatePublished - Aug 4 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • MR spectroscopy
  • enzymes
  • imaging agents
  • relaxation-based MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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