Design, Physicochemical Characterization, and In Vitro Permeation of Innovative Resatorvid Topical Formulations for Targeted Skin Drug Delivery

Victor H. Ruiz, David Encinas-Basurto, Bo Sun, Basanth Babu Eedara, Sally E. Dickinson, Georg T. Wondrak, H. H. Sherry Chow, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, Heidi M. Mansour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancies worldwide and affect more than 5 million people in the United States every year. NMSC is directly linked to the excessive exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) rays. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antago-nist, resatorvid (TAK-242), is a novel prototype chemo preventive agent that suppresses the production of inflammation mediators induced by UV exposure. This study aimed to design and de-velop TAK-242 into topical formulations using FDA-approved excipients, including DermaBase™, PENcream™, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400, propylene glycol (PG), carbomer gel, hyaluronic acid (HA) gel, and Pluronic® F-127 poloxamer triblock copolymer gel for the prevention of skin cancer. The physicochemical properties of raw TAK-242, which influence the compatibility and solubility in the selected base materials, were confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), Raman spectroscopy, and attenuated to-tal reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The permeation behavior of TAK-242 from the prepared formulations was determined using Strat-M® transdermal diffusion membranes, and 3D cultured primary human-derived epidermal keratinocytes (Epi-Derm™). Despite TAK-242′s high molecular weight and hydrophobicity, it can permeate through reconstructed human epidermis from all formulations. The findings, reported for the first time in this study, emphasize the capabilities of the topical application of TAK-242 via these multiple innovative topical drug delivery formulation platforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number700
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Epiderm™ 3D human skin
  • Franz cell
  • HaCaT human skin cell line
  • NHEK normal primary human skin cells
  • Pluronic® poloxamer triblock copolymer
  • Strat-M synthetic membrane
  • carbomer gel
  • cream
  • diffusion
  • emulsion
  • flux
  • hyaluronic acid (HA) gel
  • hydrogel
  • in vitro cell viability
  • nonmelanoma skin cancers
  • polyethylene glycol (PEG)
  • propylene glycol (PG)
  • resatorvid (TAK-242)
  • retention
  • topical drug delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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