Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay optics

Hui S. Son, Daniel L. Marks, Joonku Hahn, Jungsang Kim, David J. Brady

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


This paper presents a design strategy for close-packing circular finite-conjugate optics to create a spherical focal surface. Efficient packing of circles on a sphere is commonly referred to as the Tammes problem and various methods for packing optimization have been investigated, such as iterative point-repulsion simulations. The method for generating the circle distributions proposed here is based on a distorted icosahedral geodesic. This has the advantages of high degrees of symmetry, minimized variations in circle separations, and computationally inexpensive generation of configurations with N circles, where N is the number of vertices on the geodesic. These properties are especially beneficial for making a continuous focal surface and results show that circle packing densities near steady-state maximum values found with other methods can be achieved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16132-16138
Number of pages7
JournalOptics Express
Issue number17
StatePublished - Aug 15 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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