Design, fabrication and characterization of whispering-gallery mode miniature sensors

Haiyong Quan, Zhixiong Guo, Lei Xu, Stanley Pau

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and characterization of the whispering-gallery mode (WGM) miniature sensors for potential use in biosensing at the nanometer scale. In order to understand and investigate the characteristics of WGM resonances, we designed and fabricated a number of sensors with different dimensions. Each sensor is a micro/nano-structure consisted of a microdisk as the resonating cavity and a micro waveguide for light delivery and collection. In addition to the waveguides having uniform cross-section dimensions, tapered waveguide was also considered in our studies. A simulation model was employed to characterize the EM field and radiation energy density of the designed sensors. The gap effects on WGM resonance in terms of quality factor and full width at half maximum (FWHM) were evaluated. Following the design and characterization, the sensors were fabricated in 1.μm-thick Si 3N 4 film using 248nm optical lithography and conventional silicon IC processing. Top and down SEM measurements of the fabricated sensors were conducted and the data for the sensors in one device are given.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number46
Pages (from-to)373-381
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2005
EventNanofabrication: Technologies, Devices, and Applications - Philadelphia, PA, United States
Duration: Oct 25 2004Oct 28 2004


  • Design
  • Measurement
  • Micro/nano-structures
  • Nanofabrication
  • Optical lithography
  • Optical resonance
  • Sensors
  • Simulation
  • Waveguide
  • Whispering-gallery mode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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