Design, Development, Physicochemical Characterization, and In Vitro Drug Release of Formoterol PEGylated PLGA Polymeric Nanoparticles

Ernest L. Vallorz, David Encinas-Basurto, Rick G. Schnellmann, Heidi M. Mansour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Polymeric nanoparticles’ drug delivery systems represent a promising platform for targeted controlled release since they are capable of improving the bioavailability and tissue localization of drugs compared to traditional means of administration. Investigation of key parameters of nanoparticle preparation and their impact on performance, such as size, drug loading, and sustained release, is critical to understanding the synthesis parameters surrounding a given nanoparticle formulation. This comprehensive and systematic study reports for the first time and focuses on the development and characterization of formoterol polymeric nanoparticles that have potential application in a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Nanoparticles were prepared by a variety of solvent emulsion methods with varying modifications to the polymer and emulsion system with the aim of increasing drug loading and tuning particle size for renal localization and drug delivery. Maximal drug loading was achieved by amine modification of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated to the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) backbone. The resulting formoterol PEGylated PLGA polymeric nanoparticles were successfully lyophilized without compromising size distribution by using either sucrose or trehalose as cryoprotectants. The physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles were examined comprehensively, including surface morphology, solid-state transitions, crystallinity, and residual water content. In vitro formoterol drug release characteristics from the PEGylated PLGA polymeric nanoparticles were also investigated as a function of both polymer and emulsion parameter selection, and release kinetics modeling was successfully applied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number638
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • PEGy-lation
  • PLGA diblock copolymer
  • Pluronic triblock copolymer
  • amine
  • biocompatible
  • biodegradable
  • drug release kinetics modeling
  • emulsion
  • in vitro
  • nanoparticle
  • polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
  • solid-state characterization
  • sucrose
  • trehalose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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