Design and performance of a multi-point scan confocal microendoscope

Matthew D. Risi, Houssine Makhlouf, Andrew R. Rouse, Anthony A. Tanbakuchi, Arthur F. Gmitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy provides high-resolution cellular-level imaging via a minimally invasive procedure, but requires fast scanning to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a point scanning system, but the scan rates required for in vivo biomedical imaging can be difficult to achieve. By scanning a line of illumination in one direction in conjunction with a stationary confocal slit aperture, very high image acquisition speeds can be achieved, but at the cost of a reduction in image quality. Here, the design, implementation, and experimental verification of a custom multi-point aperture modification to a line-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope is presented. This new design improves the axial resolution of a line-scan system while maintaining high imaging rates. In addition, compared to the line-scanning configuration, previously reported simulations predicted that the multi-point aperture geometry greatly reduces the effects of tissue scatter on image quality. Experimental results confirming this prediction are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-431
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Confocal microscopy
  • Endomicroscopy
  • Microendoscopy
  • Multi-point imaging
  • Nipkow
  • Optical biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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