Cytokine profiles from antigen-stimulated whole-blood samples among patients with pulmonary or nonmeningeal disseminated coccidioidomycosis

Neil M. Ampel, Lance A. Nesbit, Chinh T. Nguyen, Suzette Chavez, Kenneth S. Knox, Suzanne M. Johnson, Demosthenes Pappagianis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The outcome of coccidioidomycosis depends on a robust specific cellular immune response. A T-helper type 1 (Th1) cellular immune response has been previously associated with resolution of clinical illness. However, the precise elements of this response and whether cytokines not involved with the Th1 response play a role in coccidioidomycosis are not known. Whole-blood samples were obtained from subjects with active coccidioidomycosis and controls and incubated for 18 h with T27K, a coccidioidal antigen preparation. The supernatant was then assayed for gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A. A total of 43 subjects, 16 with acute pneumonia, 9 with pulmonary sequelae of nodules and cavities, and 18 with nonmeningeal disseminated coccidioidomycosis, were studied. Compared to concentrations in healthy immune and nonimmune donors, the median concentration of IL-17A was significantly higher in those with active coccidioidomycosis (for both, P<0.01). In addition, IL-6 concentrations were higher while IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly lower in those with nonmeningeal disseminated disease diagnosed within 12 months than in those with acute pneumonia (for all, P<0.05). The cytokine profile among patients with active coccidioidomycosis is distinct in that IL-17A is persistently present. In addition, those with nonmeningeal disseminated disease have an increased inflammatory cytokine response and diminished Th1 responses that modulate over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-922
Number of pages6
JournalClinical and Vaccine Immunology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Microbiology (medical)


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