Cytokine expression profiling in human leukocytes after exposure to hypertonic and isotonic fluids

Vadim Gushchin, Svetlana Stegalkina, Hasan B. Alam, John R. Kirkpatrick, Peter M. Rhee, Elena Koustova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Background Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock causes profound immunologic changes. The tonicity of fluids used for resuscitation clearly influences the immune response. Our study was designed to determine whether isotonic and hypertonic fluids exert their differential effects on immune response by altering the cytokine gene profile of human leukocytes. The cDNA array method was used to profile transcriptional responses after exposure to hypertonic and isotonic fluids. Methods Blood from seven healthy volunteers was incubated for 30 minutes with isotonic (10% dextran-40 and lactated Ringer’s [LR] solution) and hypertonic (7.5% hypertonic saline and hypertonic dextran [HTD]) fluids. The volumes of isotonic fluids used were equal to the volume of blood, whereas the volumes of hypertonic fluids were adjusted to keep the salt load identical to the LR group. The cDNA array technique was used to measure the gene expression of 23 common cytokines. Results Increased gene transcription of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) as well as others (IL-5, IL-7, and IL-16) was found after incubation with resuscitation fluids. Variances were noted depending on the type of fluid; HTD and LR solution did not induce expression of IL-5, and HTD also did not induce IL-1β expression. Genes encoding IL-1α, IL-6, IL-9, and tumor necrosis factor-α had low level baseline expression in leukocytes isolated from unstimulated blood, and their expression increased markedly after exposure to resuscitation fluids. The inducible transcripts included IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, and IL-16. However, there was no difference in cytokine expression profile between isotonic and hypertonic fluids. Conclusion Exposure of human leukocytes to resuscitation fluids causes an increase in cytokine gene expressions compared with undiluted blood. This expression profile is largely independent of the type of fluid used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)867-871
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Trauma
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2002


  • Cytokine
  • Dextran
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Hypertonic saline
  • Lactated Ringer’s
  • Leukocyte
  • Resuscitation
  • Resuscitation fluids
  • Transcriptional profiling
  • cDNA array

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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